What are Gum Pockets? Causes & Treatment Options

Do you know what gum pockets are? If not, you’re not alone. Many people have never heard of this term before. Gum pockets are small spaces that develop between your teeth and gums and often become filled with plaque and bacteria. This can lead to pain, and compromise your gum health. In this blog post, we will explore what gum pockets are, their causes, and effective treatment options. Understanding and addressing gum pockets is crucial for maintaining a healthy smile and enhancing your overall oral health. Let’s dive into how to keep your gums healthy and achieve a beautiful smile.

What Exactly are Gum Pockets?

Healthy gums fit snugly around your teeth. Gingivitis is the early stage of gum disease, periodontal disease, which occurs when the gum tissues become inflamed. This inflammation is usually caused by dental plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that accumulates on teeth surfaces. When gingivitis is left untreated, it can progress to periodontitis. Periodontitis is a more serious form of gum disease that can cause permanent damage to soft tissue and bone structure supporting your teeth. One of the most common signs of gum disease is gum pocket formation.

Gum pockets, also known as periodontal pockets, form when the gums begin to pull away from the teeth. This creates small spaces, or pockets, that can become filled with dental plaque and food particles, and provide an ideal environment for harmful bacteria. Gum pockets can range in size from small to large. Large gum pockets are more likely to cause oral health issues such as pain, bad breath, tooth sensitivity, pus pockets in the gums, and tooth loss.

Pockets are not only a cause for concern because of the potential discomfort. They are also a sign that your gum disease has progressed to a more serious stage. If you have periodontal pockets, it’s important to see a dentist or periodontist to identify the underlying cause and treat it.

Size and Severity

Dental pockets can range in size from shallow to deep. Shallow gum pockets are not as serious because there is less room for dental plaque and bacteria to build up. Deep pockets between teeth are more serious because they can cause damage to the tooth-supporting tissues and jaw bone loss.

Gum pocket depth is measured in millimeters(mm) with a special tool known as a periodontal probe

  • 1 to 3 millimeters in depth: considered normal and healthy sulcus
  • 4 to 5 millimeters in depth: mild pocket
  • 5 to 7 millimeters in depth: moderate pocket
  • More than 7 millimeters in depth: deep gum pocket and cause for concern

The infected gum pocket size can give your dentist or periodontist a good idea of the severity of your periodontal disease. Based on the severity, your dentist or periodontist will determine the treatment plan suitable for you. If you have shallow periodontal pockets, you may be able to treat them with professional dental cleaning and a good oral hygiene routine. For deeper infected pockets, you will likely need more aggressive treatment, such as pocket reduction surgery.

Periodontal pockets are measured in millimeters (mm)
Periodontal pockets are measured in millimeters (mm) with a periodontal probe.

What are The Risk Factors for Gum Pockets?

Gum pockets are a sign of periodontitis, a serious form of gum disease. Gum disease is usually caused by plaque and bacteria that have built up around the teeth. However, other factors can increase your risk for gum disease. These include:

  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Smokers are twice the risk for developing gum disease compared to nonsmokers, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Teeth overcrowding
  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy
  • Family history
  • Certain medications that cause dry mouth, such as cancer treatment
  • Medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and weakened immune system

These factors are what increase the risk of periodontal pockets. If you have any of these risk factors, visit a dentist or periodontist for an evaluation. They can help you determine what steps you need to take to reduce your risk of gum disease.

Risk factors for periodontal pockets
Poor oral hygiene and smoking increase the risk of periodontal pockets.


If you think you may have gum pockets, the first step is to see a dentist or periodontist for an evaluation and determine the appropriate treatment plan. They will ask about your medical history and symptoms. They will also do an oral examination. This examination will help them determine if you have gum pockets and what stage of gum disease you are in.

Periodontal pockets are measured using a periodontal probe. During periodontal examination, a small, sharp dental probe is inserted into the pocket to measure gum pocket depth. The periodontal probe is used to measure the depth of the pocket from the gum line to the bottom of the pocket. The periodontist will then use this information to determine the severity of the gum disease and what treatment options to shrink these gum pockets.

What are Treatment Options for Gum Pockets?

The treatment options for gum pockets will depend on the severity of your gum disease. If you have shallow gum pockets, you may be able to treat them with nonsurgical treatment including professional cleanings and improving oral hygiene practices. This includes daily brushing and flossing, and using antimicrobial rinses.

If you have deep periodontal pockets, you will likely need more aggressive periodontal treatment. The nonsurgical treatment includes:

  • Scaling and root planing: It is a deep cleaning, which involves removing bacterial plaque bacteria and tartar from below the gum line and tooth root surfaces. For deeper pockets, it may require multiple dental visits. Some patients may experience loose teeth after deep cleaning due to alveolar bone deterioration as a result of the severe infection.
  • Antibiotics. You may also need to take antibiotics and antibiotic mouthwash to help clear the bacterial infection.

Surgical treatment

  • Pocket reduction surgery (flap surgery): Also known as osseous surgery, the gum tissue is lifted away from the tooth deeper scaling and root planing to clean the infected pockets. The gum tissue is then stitched back into place.
  • Bone grafting: For severe bone loss, you may need a bone graft to help reverse bone loss caused by periodontal disease.
  • Tooth extraction. In severe cases, you may need to have a tooth extracted. Your dentist may recommend a dental implant or bridge to replace the missing tooth.

These are some of the treatment options for periodontal pockets. Your dentist or periodontist will help you determine what treatment is best for you based on the severity of your gum disease.

Home Care Tips

What else can you do to help reduce gum pockets? In addition to professional treatment, a consistent home-care routine can significantly improve gum health. The following oral care tips can help reduce gum pockets naturally:

  • Brush teeth on a daily basis with a soft-bristled toothbrush and tartar-control toothpaste.
  • Floss once a day to remove food debris between teeth.
  • Use an oral rinse or antibacterial mouthwash.
  • Quit smoking and tobacco use because periodontal gum disease treatment may not work, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Eat a balanced diet that is low in sugary and acidic foods.
  • Visit your dental hygienist or dentist regularly for dental checkups and professional dental cleaning.


Gum pockets, periodontal pockets, are a sign of periodontitis, an advanced form of gum disease. Gum disease begins when dental plaque and tartar buildup around the teeth and cause the gums to become inflamed. If left untreated, gum disease can progress and lead to gum pocket formation.

Periodontal pockets are spaces that form between the teeth and gums. They can become infected and increase the risk of tooth loss.

Infected pockets can be shallow or deep. Treatment options depend on the severity of gum disease and gum pocket depth, including improving dental hygiene, professional cleanings, deep cleanings, and pocket reduction surgery. Oral care routines, such as regular brushing and flossing, can also help reduce gum pockets.

Maintaining a healthy mouth through proper dental care is essential for preventing the development of gum pockets and promoting overall gum health. Regular cleanings and a consistent home-care routine are crucial steps in achieving a bright smile. By prioritizing your oral health, you can effectively reduce the risk of periodontal disease, ensuring a healthy and perfect smile.

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