The 7 Most Common Causes of Gum Infection

Gum Infection, also known as gum disease, is a very common condition that can cause damage to the gums and tooth-supporting tissues. Infections in the gums are common in adults. Most adults experience it at least once, but it is less common in children. Poor oral hygiene is one of the most common causes of gum infection, which allows bacteria to grow freely. Healthy gums are firm and usually pink. If you have gum disease, your gums will become red, inflamed, swollen, and may bleed when you brush your teeth. If gum infection is left untreated, this can lead to gum recession, loose teeth, and even tooth loss.

The early stage of gum infection (gingivitis) can be reversed by proper oral hygiene and professional teeth cleaning. However, if gingivitis is not treated, the infection of the gums may spread to the tooth-supporting tissues. This condition is known as periodontitis, an advanced stage of gum infection, which can cause tooth loss.

7 Common Cause of Gum Infection

Poor oral hygiene and smoking are the most common causes of gum infection. However, several other factors contribute to gum infection. Here are seven causes of gum infection:

Poor Oral Hygiene / Plaque Buildup

Your mouth is full of different types of bacteria. Not brushing and flossing your teeth allow these bacteria to grow freely. Bacteria can form a thin, sticky film, known as dental plaque, which build-up on your gums and teeth. Bacteria in plaque consume food debris (carbohydrates) and produce acids that attack your teeth and irritate your gums. The gum becomes inflamed, red, swollen.

Dental plaque can usually be removed by proper oral hygiene such as brushing and flossing. However, if plaque is not removed, it can harden and turn into tartar, which makes it difficult to maintain good oral hygiene. Tartar can only be removed by your dentist. There are several causes of gum infection, poor oral hygiene is by far the most common.

Causes of gum infection include poor oral hygiene
Poor oral hygiene is one of the most common causes of gum infection.

Smoking & Tobacco Chewing

Smoking and tobacco chewing weaken your immune system, which makes it harder for your body to fight infection. Once you get a gum infection, smoking makes it harder for your gum to heal. Also, smoking causes a dry mouth condition, which promotes bacterial growth and increases the risk of cavities and gum disease. Effect of smoking on gum health include:

  • Smokers have twice the risk for gum infection compared with non-smokers.
  • The longer you smoke, the greater the risk for periodontitis and tooth loss.
  • The success rate of the treatment is less in smokers compared with non-smokers.

Hormonal Changes

Hormonal changes during pregnancy, puberty, and the menstrual cycle are one of the common causes of gum infection in women. Hormones are essential for your body’s normal process. They help with:

  • Fertility.
  • Regular appetite and mood.
  • Ensure proper function of organs.

The imbalance of both estrogen and progesterone during puberty, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy increase the risk of gum infection.

Nutritional Deficiencies

Nutrients you consume have a significant impact on your oral health, such as calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin D. Causes of gum infection include vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C keeps your gums healthy and protects against gingivitis. Also, it helps strengthen the connective tissues that hold your teeth in place. So, eat foods rich in vitamin C such as citrus fruits, tomatoes, peppers, broccoli, potatoes, and spinach.

Nutritional deficiencies from a poor diet weaken your immune system, making it harder for your body and gums to fight infections.

Dental Condition / Treatment

Causes of gum infection include crooked teeth, cavities, broken fillings, poorly fitted dentures, and orthodontic appliances. Crooked, misaligned teeth are very common. They can make it difficult to clean your teeth and keep them free of plaque. Also, cavities in between teeth can cause the accumulation of food debris and plaque between teeth, causing gum disease and periodontal pockets.

Dental treatments such as orthodontic appliances, poorly fitted bridges, and dentures can cause gum infection. According to several studies, putting orthodontic appliances on your teeth can cause gum disease because:

  • The food debris and plaque can easily be trapped between the appliance and teeth.
  • Orthodontic appliances make it harder to clean your teeth.

Also, poorly fitted prostheses such as dentures and bridges allow the accumulation of food debris and plaque between the gums and prosthesis.

Orthodontic appliances and plaque buildup
Dental plaque accumulates easily between the orthodontic appliances and your teeth, causing gum infection.

Some Medications

Gum problems such as inflammation, swelling, and bleeding may occur as a side effect of some medications. For example:

  • Oral contraceptives.
  • Steroids.
  • Anticonvulsants.
  • Calcium channel blockers.
  • Chemotherapy drugs.

Some medications weaken the immune system, which makes it harder to fight infection. Also, they can decrease the salivary flow and make the mouth dry, which contributes to gum disease.

Medical Conditions

Dry mouth is one of the significant causes of gum infection. Saliva plays an important role in the protection of your teeth and gums. The saliva:

  • Washes away food debris that is left on your teeth and gums.
  • Neutralizes acids produced by bacteria that irritate the gums.
  • Contains minerals that help in the teeth remineralization process.
  • Contains antimicrobial agents that fight bacteria.
  • Keeps the mouth at a healthy pH balance.

A dry mouth allows bacterial growth and contributes to gum infection. It can occur due to smoking, side effects of some medications, or manifestation of a medical condition/disease. Gum infection may occur as a manifestation of some systemic diseases/conditions such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and HIV/AIDS.

Stop The Causes of Gum Infection, Not The Symptoms

Inflammation of the gums, receding gums, gum bleeding, and persistent bad breath are the signs of gum infection. So, you need to visit your dentist to identify the underlying causes of gum infection and treat them to prevent complications.

To Stop the Causes of Gum Infection, You Should:

  • Maintain good oral hygiene: Gum infection usually occurs due to poor oral hygiene. So, brush your teeth twice daily with a small, soft toothbrush to remove plaque from gum and teeth. Also, floss your teeth at least once per day to remove plaque and food debris from between teeth. If you have braces, brush your teeth 5 times a day.
  • Quit smoking: smoking and tobacco use are some of the most significant causes of gum infection. They also cause dry mouth conditions and make gum treatment less effective.
  • Eat a well-balanced diet: drink plenty of water and eat a balanced diet that is rich in vitamin C.
  • Treat dental problems: visit your dentist at least once every 6 months for professional teeth cleaning to remove plaque and tartar. Also, to treat the underlying causes of gum infection such as crooked teeth or cavities in between teeth. Your dentist also can perform a deep cleaning to remove tartar from below the gum line. They may prescribe antibiotics to help fight the infections. If you are pregnant, schedule regular dental appointments for check-ups and professional teeth cleaning.
  • Visit your physician: If gum infection occurs as a manifestation of a medical condition/disease or a side effect of some medications, visit your physician to treat the medical condition or change the medication.

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